On 8 April 1911, the physicist Onnes (“the gentleman of the absolute zero”) of Leiden University had to cool down mercury to minus 273.15 degrees Celsius and discovered the superconductivity, the total disappearance of electrical resistance of certain materials when they are cooled down.
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, known as “the gentleman of absolute zero,” devoted his career to a quest to reach lower and lower temperatures and explore the behavior of matter at those extremely low temperatures.
One hundred years on, superconductivity has proven both invaluable and, at the same time, frustratingly hard to implement commercially.
It took almost 50 years for researchers to understand the Superconductivity principle.
Superconducting magnets which are the most strongest electromagnets used in MRI and NMR machines, mass spectrometers, and the beam-steering magnets used in particle accelerators. In the 1950s and 1960s, superconductors were used to build experimental digital computers using cryotron switches. More recently, superconductors have been used to make digital circuits based on rapid single flux quantum technology and RF and microwave filters for mobile phone base stations.
Source: IP watch,Wiki